For the past 12 months, our global office network has been involved in numerous casualties, resulting to damage repairs of varying nature and scale. Particularly in the post Ukraine war commencement period – since February 2022, the persistent ‘zero Covid’ policy remaining applicable in China (impairing accessibility and timely execution of damage repairs), as well as the hectic rush for outfitting vessels with Water Ballast System, has created a damage repair environment of higher costs and limited yard/drydocking slots availability, particularly for emergency/mandatory repairs on keel blocks before continuing voyage or trading.

In light of the above we initiated since February 2022 a comparative research on damage repair costs (per records available from our case files) and availability of regional yards / Dry-docking facilities globally, focusing on aspects such as costs/congestion for both Owners/Class purposes works and damage repairs, for handy size to ultra-large vessels. In this context, we took the opportunity to research and prepare a database regarding the Dry-docking availability for Ultra-large vessels, focused on the main global repair regions.

Based on the extensive “dig” in our database by our Partners and Surveyors and in continuous interaction with our Principals – The Hull & Machinery Underwriters – which is ongoing, we are focusing on the damage repairs main cost drivers, which may be summarized as follows:

  • Location of Yard
  • Nature/quantum of damage and thus required repair period thereof
  • Type / Size of ship
  • Dry-docking dues (first / last day; daily dues)
  • Wharfage dues
  • Yard general services (wharfage & provisions)
  • Steel work costs (ALL-IN – based on base unit price and after customary uplifts and satellite costs)
  • Coating works
  • Skilled / unskilled labour manhour unit costs

In close cooperation with our Principals, we are currently in the process and making efforts for preparing a comprehensive database for repair costs comparison around the world, focusing on the quoted or invoiced amounts charged by respective facilities, with the first summary of results expected to be compiled within 2023.

Based on the data collected and our experience to date, the following important aspects are currently assessed, with regard to the geographical importance and current state of repair facilities in respect of availability and costs:


China / Singapore – South East Asia

  • Since the Covid outbreak at the beginning of 2020, all shipyards in China imposed various policies / pandemic control measures (crew covid test, shipboard disinfection, quarantine etc.). Meanwhile, various energy & raw material costs also considerably increased to some extent in past 2 years, which directly / indirectly resulted in repair cost inflation.
  • Installation of Ballast Water Treatment and Exhaust Gas Scrubber units during the years 2020 & 2021 (peak time) but continuing into 2022, caused extreme congestion in shipyards (lack of drydocking/repair slots), which contributed to damage repair costs inflation, being largely volatile between yards in China.
  • In 2022, congestion is ‘topped up’ with the delays resulting from restrictions related to the state ‘zero covid’ policies still prevailing. The latter has made Owners to refrain from carrying out large scale repairs in China since last year, consequently resulting to increased congestion in Singapore and other regional yards in South East Asia. Otherwise, the drydocking capacity for any type/size of vessel is available in China and will be so. We would also note that yards tend to quote higher rates for damage repairs (for both DD dues and steelworks) as compared to routine drydocking for Class purposes (especially when fleet contracts are involved with large fleets which have priority).
  • An apparent annual percentage inflation of 20-30% has been observed on Dry-docking and Wharfage charges and 5-12% increase in steel renewal costs by the end of 2021. However, figures have further increased within 2022 due to the situation prevailing throughout the global economy and material supply chain post Ukraine war, with dramatic rise in energy/transport costs.
  • Service Engineers’ fees are subject to work scope and Makers’ tariff rates. However, we may comment that there is a 20% – 40 % (average 30 %) annual increase on Services fees in 2021. These inflations may be mainly related with Covid Restrictions in China, which affects Service Engineers` traveling / and waiting time prior attendance on board (added charges for compulsory quarantine period time). Otherwise, Some of Service Companies also additionally charge extra amounts on account of Covid related issues (tests etc).
  • Increased cost of supply of spare parts are generally related with shipping / freight costs, which are significantly increased and much higher than before – reaching very high levels when heavy large components are transported, such as new propellers, tailshafts, crankshafts, short blocks etc, requiring specialized logistics. Therefore, apart from transportation cost, spare parts / engine components’ price also increased recently due to increments of transportation cost for the raw materials to Manufacturers / Makers premises. Although, it still is difficult to accurately comment on the rate of inflation, it may be estimated that 10% – 30% (average 20 %) inflation on engine parts / components, varying between different Makers and components material/design or type.



  • The main shipyards located in Tuzla and Yalova are almost fully occupied and congested, giving DD availability for Class Surveys at least 2-3 months upon approaching (as a minimum). This is due to Water Ballast Treatment plant outfitting on the majority of vessels calling for Class Surveys to meet the deadline and this applies to all vessels size/type.
  • Nevertheless, slots may be found for emergency repairs by re-adjusting their schedule – however rarely immediate. Therefore, if the damage repair cost is relatively small and there is no associated Owners work for giving some additional turnover, the quoted DD and wharfage rates are quoted at higher levels, if not substantially increased particularly if vessels’ stay is extended due to additional damage discovered during inspections.
  • Lastly and given the current congestion, there are valid ‘rumors’ recently that large fleet shipping companies (Greek or other Nationality) are seeking fleet contracts by also ‘pre-booking’ drydocking space ahead by giving ‘range period dates’ for vessels’ calls.
  • An apparent annual percentage inflation of 15-20% has been observed on Dry-docking and Wharfage charges and 30-40% on base unit steel renewal rate in 2022, as most of the steel supply for Tuzla/Yalova yards was always from Ukraine steel products factories – the largest having been destroyed in the war. These figures are expected to rise further as we enter in 2023.
  • An inflation of 100% is reported by yards on the supply cost of steel materials, when comparing 2020 vs 2021.
  • The main factor in Tuzla region for higher costs remains the non-availability of DD space (currently both Tuzla and Yalova repairs zones are extremely congested with dry-docking slots), which affects both time / cost of repairs on account of damages “discovered’ in addition to those scheduled. In such cases, extended time both at berth or in DD is being charged at higher dry-docking dues than originally quoted. Such issues are also causing repair time delays until next availability.



  • The repair scene in Greece has changed after Cosco established their presence in Piraeus by the OLP take over – increasing the container terminal / trade capacity to record-high levels and adding to the D/Docking capacity, by the addition of their new floating dock (accommodating up to Panamax size).
  • Takeover of the Syros Island Neorion Shipyards by Onex (with Chalkis Shipyards management also practically under their wing) added to the revamping of the repair capacity, along with Spanopoulos yard (at Salamis Island – across Perama), who also provide a floating dock of Panamax capacity.
  • Thus, increased volumes of Class / Damage repairs are now seen over the recent years, with the above yard options for the moment, until Skaramanga (Hellenic) Shipyards are hopefully reactivated for commercial operation (after their recent take-over by George Prokopiou interests).
  • On very recent news, on 24th Nov 2022, the first vessel berthed at Elefsis Shipyard for repairs alongside, after a long idle period of the shipyard for approximately 4 years. The shipyard will be managed by Onex with a revamping which was long awaited by the local industry. A ceremony with local Government and Authorities was held on 25th November for the celebration of the shipyard’s reactivation, which creates some promising circumstances for the recovery of the area’s ship repair sector.
  • Given the above and rather limited availability of yards berth or D/D space, Perama Repair Zone based contractors still provide a good option for high quality machinery & hull repairs, mainly afloat at Perama, using the OLP/COSCO repair berths & floating docks for any repairs on keel blocks (but not of large scale/extended dry time)
  • With regard to steel renewal unit price for repairs in Greece – as opposed to Turkey – it is rather difficult to pin point a reference price, as this is a variant of multiple parameters for repairs in both Yards and/or Perama (subject to location, quantum, availability etc).
  • An apparent annual percentage inflation of 10-15% has been observed to steel renewal costs base price whilst a 15-25% to steel prices after application of increments by the end of 2021. These figures are again expected to rise entering 2023 due to the situation prevailing throughout the global economy and material / energy supply.



With the global economy now in turmoil due to the energy crisis, the increasing pressure for sustainable industries as well as the effect of global increase of inflation rates due to the Ukraine war, the ship repair industry is facing a general increase in costs and considerable congestion with respect to the availability of facilities.

As the oil and gas prices are continuously rising, it is expected that all dependent products and heavy industry consumers shall be forced to further increase their prices, in order to compensate for losses on facility expenses, transportation, forwarding, machinery operations, manufacturing processes and subsequently labour costs.

To the date of drafting this article, it is not clear as to when or where the global increase of prices will stop, and this is a major factor impacting the overall stability of the shipping industry as a whole, and the ship repair subsector under review in this specific article. It is evident however that in the current globalized market, geopolitical uncertainty, and its effect to the disturbance of energy prices and supply chains, have a negative impact on the overall cost/time that ship repairs require.

It will be interesting to see the results of our analysis on repair cost drivers database by the end of 2023 and how the global developments will have affected our research until then.

For inquiries regarding further information on ship repair facilities, repair costs and more, please do not hesitate to contact us at